- They are enumerable – that is, they can be ‘enumerated’, i.e. we can discover which numbers are members, by means of a Turing Program (or, rather, a computer)
- The complement of (that is, the set of all things not in ) is infinite.
- The simple set ‘touches’ every infinite enumerable set. That means, that for any infinite set that is enumerable, our simple set shares at least one number.
These are the original rules from Davidoff, that I am yet to use. He keeps it very simple, and wants it to continue to be so! So, have a go, and enjoy it!
The Original Mafia Rules
My name is Dimma Davidoff, I am the inventor of the original Mafia game. The game was created in 1986 in Moscow, Russia and quickly spread all over the world. Players made many additional modifications of the game rules, but the basic principle (informed minority vs. uninformed majority) is still intact. Below, you could find the original rules of Mafia, which, in my creator’s opinion, are the most simple, effective, and fun. If you have any questions or comments, please email to me email@example.com.
© Copyright 1987, 1992, 1998, by D. Davidoff.
Welcome to Mafia, a rite-playing game in which players become characters suspected in having Mafia connections. Two teams: the Honest and the Mafia will compete against each other. For the Honest team players, the task is to stop Mafia before it eliminates them. Mafia members have to hide their identity and pose as Honest players in order to manipulate the other team players towards self-destruction. It is in each player’s best interest to prove his or her innocence (or if you are a Mafia member, to hide your guilt) by accusing and interrogating their fellow suspects, until all members of the opposing team are eliminated from the game.
Prepare a deck of cards, paper, pencils and at least six players. When all players have assembled, count how many people are in. From the deck, take as many cards as there are players according to the following list:
6-7 players = 2 black cards + others red
8-10 players = 3 black cards + others red
11-13 players = 4 black cards + others red
14-16 players = 5 black cards + others red
Inform the players of the number of the black cards included.
First step is to divide the players into two teams. Each player gets one card from the prepared and shuffled deck, secretly looks at the card’s color and returns the card to the deck. Then everybody closes their eyes and lowers their heads. Someone starts counting aloud (usually the person who dealt the cards). After number 5, s/he continues to count silently until 15, then s/he resumes counting aloud until 20. During the silent period, the players who got black cards, should open their eyes, raise their heads, and look at each other, then close their eyes and lower their heads again. On count 20, everybody should open their eyes. Now, all players are divided into two teams. Mafia are the players who saw each other and therefore know each other. Honest people are the players who saw nothing, don’t know each other, and don’t know who the Mafia members are. This is the only advantage of Mafia: they know each other. Honest players have to suspect everybody, but they have an advantage of being the majority. The main struggle during the next phase will be between the informed minority and the uniformed majority.
Talk… At any moment, any player may put another player in the “suspected to be the Mafia” position. S/he should (better) provide grounds for the suggestion. Everyone (including the accused) has a right to argue. But when the accuser asks to vote, everyone should vote by raising their hands. If the majority of the players (not counting the accused) votes for “Guilty as member of the Mafia”, the suspected player is “sentenced to death” and s/he is out of the game until the end of the round. If the accuser fails to get the majority on her/his side, the game continues with the same number of players. Accusations may happen any number of times during the discussion. Players who are eliminated from the game do not reveal their identity until the end of the game and should not try to help others who are still in the game. There is no way to know the team identity of the “dead” unless you have the next phase.
This is the only phase when you can find out if all Mafia members have been eliminated. So, once in a while, someone should propose to have a “Mafia Night”. If the majority of the players who are still in the game agrees, the Night begins. Everyone takes a pencil and a piece of paper, and secretly writes on them. Honest people must write “honest” on the note, while members of the Mafia must write the name of the person, whom they want to eliminate from the game. After that, everybody puts their notes in the middle and someone reads them. The number of the notes with the names will reflect the number of survived Mafia members, so the players will know if they have “killed” an Honest person or a Mafia member during the day. If the same name appears on all Mafia notes, the named person is “murdered” and is out of the game until the end of the round. In any other case, the named players survive the Mafia attack and the game continues with the same number of players.
For example, if three members of the Mafia are in the game, there should be three notes with names on them. Only if all three notes have the same name, that person is “murdered”. If only one member of Mafia is still in the game, her/his single shot will be enough to eliminate somebody.
The game ends when there are no shots during Mafia Night or all Honest people have been eliminated. Start again.
Pointers for the beginners
- Players are free to introduce new procedures during the game, but no one has to follow them unless she/he finds their usage at that moment reasonable.
- Accidental or purposeful peeking by red card holders during the Sunrise Phase should be discouraged, however it will not give any advantage during the game. Trick of the game is always to persuade others to accept your knowledge and never to have the knowledge per se. By the way, this is the reason for my reservations of including different knowledge bearing characters (inspector, angel, seer). The only knowledge in the game is Mafia connections, everything else is artificial.
- Paper and pencils should be the same for everybody. Otherwise, it will be easy to find who have written what during the Mafia Night.
- For a new group, unless a clear leader emerges, the first round may be a little slow. In the second round people who were unjustly eliminated have enough drive to prevent it from happening again. The third game is great without any reservations. If a group has someone who played before, s/he should provide initial leadership from the beginning.
If Mafia wins, each surviving Mafia player receives a number of points equal to the initial number of the Honest players. If Honest wins, every Honest player receives a number of points equal to the number of surviving Honest players.
So, here are some more wow cards, again, inspired by http://www.ianrowland.com, as well as the second attempt at PPO.
First, some Wow-cards I haven’t put up yet:
This one was quite fun to cut. It’s quite straightforward when you see how to fold and re-fold it. This had a few corners to be sorted out, but the overall effect is very, very pleasing!
This one is very cute. Maybe a little bit too much, so. Was a present for a friend – she loved it!
Heart of Hearts
This was technically a commission. For a friend who wanted a unique ‘I love you’ gift for their partner.
Now, for the second attempt at linked objects:
This is inspired by Permanent Paranormal Objects. This is a little inaccurate, and not very good. But this is the first attempt! More to follow…
More work on invisible seams is needed.
A lot of people know their stuff for exams. They spend hours and hours over many weeks to ensure that they know their subject for an exam. When the weighting of an exam is 88% of a final mark, for example, that puts a lot of pressure on.
Exams, however, are the least-best method of assessment, in my view. However, they are the cheapest option for en masse assessment of students, and they have now become an necessary evil of academia and beyond!
A lot of students are let down by inadequate exam technique and exam training. They aren’t told where the marks are, how to read a question properly, how to deal with time management, and most importantly, how to deal with stress in an exam – that same stress and panic that puts those hundreds of hours of revision in peril…
I was fortunate to be very good at exams at school, and at university. So, here are some tips for good exam technique.
1) Mnemonics – loads of books/resources on these. If you’re revising, start using them. Very much well-worth it. If you use them during the course of a teaching session, you actually have to do very little by way of revision. If you use them during revision, it will stick. Peg systems, ‘tall tales’, etc. all work, and very effectively. If you can get good at these, you’ll have a super-charged memory.
2) General points for *all* exams –
- What’s the first thing you do? Write your name on the paper. This *has* been forgotten in ages past…
- What’s the next thing you do? PANIC?!? No… Relax. then…
- read the *whole* paper. This will give you the survey of the next 1.5-3 hours of your life. You will know where the easy questions are, and where the harder ones lie. You’ll see the questions you can answer instantly, and the ones your going to have to think about…
- Once, and only once, you have read the entire paper, begin. The 5 minutes spent doing that will have saved you loads of time. If you were to get stuck on a question, and you know the next one is straightforward, you can leave the current question, and make sure you get the marks from the next question. That’s how it should work.
- Exams are a ‘Show you Know’ type of scenario – don’t be too bold, but certainly make sure you show just what you have spent those hours revising for!
- Once you get to 5 minutes remaining. Stop!! Read through your paper. Chances are, if you are still doing a question, then you’re not going to get much further in giving an answer to it. Go over what you have already done, and make sure it is the best that it can be!
3) Scientific/Q&A exams –
- Read section 1 & 2.
- When reading questions, don’t be afraid to underline important words so that you can see exactly what the question is asking for…
- Give full and clear answers. Don’t scrimp on detail – the marker doesn’t know that you can do calculus in your head. Show them that you can do it on paper too. Then, if there are any errors, they can at least see your thinking.
- Make sure you write the answer in the answer box/on the answer line if one is indicated.
4) Essay-based exams –
These can be horrible if you don’t know how to do them. Read below for some help on how to write a good essay under stress and duress of exam:
- Read section 1 & 2.
- Read section 3.
- Choose your question wisely. Spend time thinking about which one is best to answer, and stick with it!
- Write an essay plan. Sounds like there isn’t enough time, but there is. Take 5-10 minutes to draft a quick essay plan. Organise your thoughts. Get the argument clear, linear, cogent, and easily understandable. Once you have done this, start!
- Remember the rule – new point, new paragraph!
- Quotes – always go into an exam like this with two quotes you intend to use. It looks good, works well, and gives you something to discuss if you get stuck.
- If you remember something whilst writing, finish your sentence, and go back and add to the essay plan. Don’t try and weave it into the current point!
The only point I’m going to re-iterate is this one; RELAX!! It is not worth getting hot and bothered in an exam, so make sure you remove all nerves, and relax into the process.
There are only 4 things you really need to be good at public speaking.
1) if using notes, keep them as short as possible. No crib reading. This allows you to make eye contact.
2) stick to the bl**dy point – if you don’t, your audience will be thinking this precise sentence
3) don’t rush – as much as it isn’t a marathon, nor is it a sprint.
4) lick your teeth – this lets you make consonants more easily, making you clearer to listen to. More consonant (plosive, sibilant, et c.) sounds than assonant in most languages.
Occasioned by seeing someone reading a crap book about public speaking.